Cumulous / Cumulonimbus clouds
Cumulonimbus clouds are tall clouds associated with thunderstorms. Sometimes they form from smaller fluffy cumulous clouds, as seen in this You-Tube video. I believe the picture above shows clouds in the transition from cumulous to cumulonimbus.
Cirrus clouds are comprised of ice crystals at high altitudes. They are found anywhere between 13,000 to 66,000 feet above sea level.
Stratocumulus clouds are quite common, they occur as clumps of low-level clouds, usually below 6600 feet.
Stratus clouds are low-level featureless hazy layers of clouds. They are essentially above-ground fog.
A foggy morning on the lake.